Severe knee pain means there is a problem with the joint. The peculiarity of the knee joint is that it has to bear the main load during movement and exertion, so it is often injured. The affected knee joint is very difficult to cure, so it is extremely important to take measures to eliminate the cause of the pain in time.
Causes of pain in the knee can be:
- Trauma (acute trauma).They are the most common cause. They occur after a hard blow, excessive joint flexion, and a strong fall to the joint. With mechanical trauma, sharp pain, swelling, there may be tingling, numbness, skin color changes in the joint area.
- Arthritis (gonarthrosis)is the destruction of the tissues of the joint. Gonarthrosis is primary and secondary. Primary disease affects the elderly, while secondary disease is the result of trauma or it is a complication of other diseases (eg, rheumatoid arthritis). Symptoms: pain and stiffness. With a long course of gonarthrosis, movements in the joints may become impossible.
- Arthritis (inflammation of the gonads)- inflammatory diseases. Recognizing signs: pain increases with movement, increases in joint size, fever in the injured knee, sometimes red.
- Meniscopathy- damage to meniscus, manifested by sharp pain. In the absence of proper treatment, the disease can turn into a chronic form, as a result of which osteoarthritis develops.
- Vascular disease. Thrombosis or embolism (blockage) of the arteries supplying the knee joint leads to cartilage necrosis, making walking impossible. There is no effective treatment for osteonecrosis. Arthroscopy of the affected joint is performed.
- periarthritis- this is an inflammation of the pocket of the joint and the tissues that surround it. With periarthritis, there is pain in the knee joint that is not clearly localized. Periarthritis is often a complication of trauma.
- Bursitisis an inflammation of the bursa. Bursitis can be caused by overuse of the joint, infection, or injury. With this disease, constant severe pain is noted, but freedom of movement is preserved.
- TendonitisIt is an inflammation of the ligaments and tendons. Symptoms are swelling and pain in the affected area. They increase with knee flexion and extension. Chronic tendinitis symptoms are indicative of tendinitis.
- Baker's cyst- this is a complication after trauma, genital infection or metastatic disease. A Baker's cyst is a collection of joint fluid in a pocket of clothing. The disease is characterized by pain when flexing the knee and discomfort during movement. To avoid complications, it is not recommended to squat.
- Osteomyelitis of the legis a purulent disease associated with infection that results from bleeding osteomyelitis, an open fracture, or a postoperative complication. The most common infectious agent is staphylococcus.
Types of pain
There are different types of knee pain:
- When squatting. It is often caused by joint diseases, viral infections, lack of exercise, poor diet. seen in athletes. If your knees hurt when squatting, then the exercise should be stopped. For persistent and frequent pain, you should consult your doctor.
- When you bend your legs. This is one of the most common joint problems. Osgood-Schlatter disease, ligament and meniscal lesions, Baker's cysts, infectious lesions, were observed. . . When in pain, it is necessary to limit the load on the foot, refuse to play sports, wear comfortable orthopedic shoes.
- After running. Associated with diseases such as arthritis, bursitis, bursitis, etc. v. In this case, the normal functioning of the joint stops and under heavy load, the joint begins to collapse. It is necessary to conduct timely treatment of these diseases, otherwise complete loss of motor functions may result.
- Crunch. If there is no swelling, pain and stiffness when moving, there is nothing to fear. However, this symptom can be caused by a dangerous disease - osteoarthritis, in which joint cartilage is damaged and severe pain occurs. It is very important to start treatment of this disease in a timely manner.
You can diagnose the cause of your pain in the following ways:
- General blood analysis. Allows you to detect anemia, leukocytosis, etc. v.
- Blood chemistry. Detection of uric acid elevation in gout.
- X-ray study. This method allows you to detect pathologies of bone tissue. With its help, fractures, osteomyelitis and osteoarthritis are diagnosed. X-ray studies were supplemented with computed tomography (CT). Nodules, ligaments, tendon sheaths, and other soft tissues cannot be seen on X-rays and CT scans.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), NMRI (magnetic resonance imaging). This is modern research. With its help, pathology of the soft tissues of the joint (manifest, ligaments, etc. ) is diagnosed.
- Bone biopsy. It is done when osteomyelitis or bone tuberculosis is suspected.
- Arthroscopy. It is performed both for diagnosis and for treatment, for example, with meniscus injuries.
- Ultrasound (ultrasound examination). This is a screening study performed in cases of suspected traumatic injury, degenerative joint disease, meniscal disease, etc. Ultrasound results need to be verified by radiography (CT) and/or MRI.
Treatment should be comprehensive and include both conservative approaches and surgical intervention. Let's consider them in more detail:
During an exacerbation, treatment must reduce pain and swelling, then restore normal joint mobility. During the initial period after the injury, it is not advisable to move without assistance.
The basis of treatment is anti-inflammatory therapy. It involves the use of the following agents: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pyrazolone derivatives, indoleacetic acid derivatives, oxicam, glucocorticoids.
To strengthen the immune system, the following procedures are prescribed: freezing, plasmapheresis, blood absorption, plasma filtration, immunostimulants.
Specific medications and treatments are selected by the attending physician.
In addition, conservative treatment includes applying ice to the affected area to relieve pain or applying heat to improve blood microcirculation.
With metastatic disease, the joint is punctured and the blood accumulated from the injury is removed.
In addition, conservative treatment includes physiotherapeutic methods: massage, therapeutic exercises and spa rehabilitation. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe a special diet that provides a limited calorie content.
Chondroprotectors are used to nourish cartilage and reduce destructive processes.
The most common physical therapy methods are magnetic therapy, laser therapy, cryotherapy, acupuncture.
With gonarthrosis, special shoes and knee pads - orthopedic are used. These shoes contribute to the normalization of gait and knee pads immobilize the diseased joint.
If, after conservative treatment, the joint cannot achieve the required stability, surgical intervention will be indicated.
The most common surgical techniques are arthroscopy and arthroplasty.
Arthroscopy is a technique that can reduce pain in joints and increase joint mobility. This treatment not only eliminates the underlying disease, but also delivers medication into the joint cavity that works to reduce inflammation.
A pronounced therapeutic effect in osteoarthritis stage 2 and even 3 is produced by hyaluronic acid preparations, which are used in the skin. The introduction of hyaluronic acid is considered as an alternative to arthroplasty when it is not possible due to contraindications to treatment. This is a medical manipulation, it has contraindications.
Engineering is done with the following problems:
- damage to meniscus and meniscus;
- ligament rupture;
- the presence of foreign bodies in the joint;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- intraocular fracture.
During the rehabilitation period after surgery, it is advisable to strictly follow medical recommendations by performing therapeutic exercises, avoiding unreasonably premature load on the limb.
Endodontics (arthroplasty) is a surgery in which damaged parts of the knee joint are replaced with an artificial implant (endoprosthesis).
More than 95% of endoscopes are covered by mandatory health insurance for 10-15 years and then need to be replaced. Today, far from all regions, endoscopic replacement, as opposed to major surgery, can be issued under mandatory health insurance. Not all patients after 10-15 years are eligible for a second surgery due to other cardiovascular and somatic risks. So it's not worth rushing with endoscopy. I recommend using this operation only when all other treatments have been exhausted.
Arthroscopy is performed when pain-free rehabilitation of the knee joint cannot be achieved by conservative methods and with the assistance of arthroscopy. After arthroplasty, purulent complications may occur. Antibiotics are prescribed for prevention. After endoscopy, patients need long-term rehabilitation (up to 6 months).
Folk methods of treatment
Folk remedies can be helpful in reducing pain, but they should be taken alongside conventional treatments.
When using folk remedies, be sure to consult your doctor.
Let's look at some popular methods:
- Ointment. For knee pain, prepare 1 tbsp. l. hypericum and 2 tbsp. l. yarrow, crush them. Melt 1 tablespoon in a water bath. l. Vaseline. Grass is poured into hot Vaseline and rubbed into a homogeneous mass. This ointment should be rubbed into the painful knee at night.
- Mixture based on rye grain. You should take 250 g of rye seeds, pour with 2 liters of water and bring to a boil. After the mixture cools, it is filtered, and 500 g of vodka, 1 kg of honey, 3 teaspoons are added to it. strawberry roots. The mixture is thoroughly stirred and left for 21 days in a dark place. It is recommended to use a mixture of 3 tbsp. l. before eating. It is necessary to drink 9 liters of the mixture for the entire period of treatment.
If you have knee pain, don't panic. However, if the pain persists for a long time, you should definitely consult your doctor. This will avoid a lot of trouble.